Computer Network Related Question Answers For SBI UPSC SSC Exams
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Different types of network are LAN, MAN, and WAN.
A LAN (local area network) is a group of computers and network devices connected together, usually within the same building. By definition, the connections must be high speed and relatively inexpensive (e.g., token ring or Ethernet).
A MAN (metropolitan area network) is a larger network
that usually spans several buildings in the same city or town. A WAN (wide area network), in comparison to a MAN, is not restricted to a geographical location, although it might be confined within the bounds of a state or country. A WAN connects several LANs and may be limited to an enterprise (a corporation or an organization) or accessible to the public. The technology is high speed and relatively expensive. The Internet is an example of a worldwide public WAN.
A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for data transmission amongst devices such as computers, telephones, tablets and personal digital assistants.
Campus Area Network or corporate area network is a computer network made up of an interconnection of local area networks (LANs) within a limited geographical area.
A Storage Area Network (SAN) is a specialized, high-speed network that provides block-level network access to storage. A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, such as the Internet. It enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.
Modem: Modem stands for Modulator-Demodulator. It is used to connect computers for communication via telephone lines.
Hub: It works at the Physical layer. It just acts like a connector of several computers i.e. simply connects all the devices on its ports together. It broadcasts all the data packets arriving at it with no filtering capacity
Switch: It works at the Data Link Layer. It is used for dividing a network into segments called subnets. It provides filtering of data packets and prevents network traffic also.
Repeater: It operates at the Physical Layer. It is used to amplify a signal that has lost its original strength so as to enable them to travel long distances.
Router: It works at the Network Layer and is used to connect different networks that have different architectures and protocols. It sends the data packets to the desired destination by choosing the best path available thus reducing network traffic.
Gateway: It operates in all the layers of the network architecture. IIt can be used to connect two different networks having different architectures, environment and even models.
Bridge: They are used to connect two LANs with the same standard but using different types of cables. It provides an intelligent connection by allowing only desired messages to cross the bridge thus improving performance. It uses physical addresses of the packets for this decision.
IPv4 – 32 bits numeric address
IPv6 – 128 bits hexadecimal address
IPv6 does not use broadcast messages and has three types of addresses, which are categorized as:
Unicast addresses. A packet is delivered to one interface.
Multicast addresses. A packet is delivered to multiple interfaces.
Anycast addresses. A packet is delivered to the nearest of multiple interfaces (in terms of routing distance).
With an IPv4 IP address, there are five classes of available IP
ranges: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E, while only A, B, and C are commonly used. Each class allows for a particular range of valid IP addresses. Class D is reserved for multicast groups and Class E is reserved for future use, or Research and Development Purposes.
Data Communication deals with the transmission of digital data from one device to another. Data is transferred through a pathway called as communication channel which can be the physical wire connecting the devices or may be unguided media like the laser, microwave etc.
A communication channel has a source or transmitter at one side and a designation or receiver at another side of the network. The source of data origination is single but there may be multiple receivers. A communication channel is of 3 types:
Simplex: This, communication is unidirectional i.e. one of the two devices can transmit the data and the other can only receive the data. For e.g. Radio broadcasting, television broadcasting etc.
Half duplex: This communication is bi-directional. Either of the devices can act as transmitter or receiver but only one device can transmit the data at one time. For e.g. Walkie- Talkie.
Full Duplex: Here the communication is in both directions and both the devices can simultaneously transmit the data. For e.g. Telephone conversation.
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the internal functions of a communication system by partitioning it into abstraction layers. The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection project at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
7 APPLICATION LAYER—————–(Network Process to Application) Data
6 PRESENTATION LAYER————-(Data Representation & Encryption) Data
5 SESSION LAYER———————–(Inter-host Communication) Data
4 TRANSPORT LAYER——————-(End-to-end connections & reliability) Segments
3 NETWORK LAYER——————–(Path Determination and IP) Packets
2 DATA LINK LAYER——————–(Physical Addressing) Frames
1 PHYSICAL LAYER———————(Media, Signal, and Binary Transmission) Bits
The network topology is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network. There are two basic categories of network topologies:
Physical topologies and Logical topologies.
Physical topology is the placement of the various components of a network, including device location and cable installation, while Logical topology illustrates how data flows within a network, regardless of its physical design. Various types of topologies are:
Hybrid topology uses a combination of any two or more
topologies in such a way that the resulting network does not exhibit one of the standard topologies.
Cloud computing is a type of Internet-based computing that provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand.
Public clouds are owned and operated by companies that offer rapid access over a public network to affordable computing resources.
A private cloud is an infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted either internally or externally.
A hybrid cloud uses a private cloud foundation combined with the strategic integration and use of public cloud services.
Google Drive is a personal cloud storage service from Google which gives every user 15 GB of Drive storage space.
OneDrive is Microsoft’s service for hosting files in the “cloud
computing”. OneDrive offers 5GB of storage space for free.
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